AUKSTOJI MATEMATIKA PDF

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Destymas ir jo kokybe is dalies laikoma aukstajam mokslui neabejingq zmoniq veikla. Discipli- nq aukstojoje mokykloje sudetingumas nepateisina abejingu- mo studentq, taip pat visuomenes, valstybes, aukstosios mo- kyklos administracijos bei destytojq poreikiams.

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Destymas -tai ne vien tik bendravimas, tai ir galimybiq jgyti iguzius, supratimq ir gebejimq atkakliai ir istvermingai siekti tolimesniq tikslq suda- rymas, nors kai kurie is tq, kuriems sios galimybes teikiamos, ne visada sugeba suprasti tuos, kurie tokias galimybes teikia. Siandienine aukstosios mokyklos politika retai atspindi mark- sistines, industrines, pilietines ir antikarines praeities realijas.

Siandieninp bendrqjq politikq lemia globalus ekonominiai po- kyciai, skatinantys studentus ieskotis darbo ne arciau namq, o labiau ekonomiskai issivysciuqsiq miestq irsaliqtechnologiniuo- se bei verslo centruose.

Destymo mikropolitika ir toliau didzia dalimi lemia tai, ar destytojas gaus destyti norimus kursus. Ge- ra destymo kokybe priklauso nuo pasirinkimu, kuriuos studen- tams reikia daryti gyvenime, ne tik akademines specializacijos atveju, bet ir pasirenkant tai, su kuo jie gers kavq ar kokiomis vertybemis vadovausis, siekdami savo karjeros.

Siame straipsnyje pateiksime argumentus jrodancius, kad jver- tinimas turi buti daugialypis. Tik truputis demesio bus skirta des- tytojo bruozams ir destymo stiliams, nors tai taip pat labai svar- bu.

Nesutelksime demesio ir j studentq studijq rezultatus. Ak- centuosime tik destytojo pareigq McConney ir kt. Rei- kalausime jvertintojo asmeninio nuovokumo ir jtikinesime, kad destytojas turi buti laikomas akademines bendruomenes nariu.

Pabaigoje kaip savo politinq pozicijq pateiksime personalo jver- tinimo rezultatus, supriesindami juos su standartizuotu desty- mu aukstojoje mokykloje. Quality of teaching is partly a matmatika of who cares. The complexity of the disciplines taught is not justification for indifference to the needs of students — and the needs of the public, and the state, and the campus administrative offices, and the instructors. Teaching matejatika not merely a matter of com- municating but matemati,a of matemxtika opportunity to gain skills, understandings, and capacity to persevere, some of which will be outside the comprehension of some of those who teach.

Campus politics today seldom mirrors the Marxist, indus- trialist, civil rights and anti-war battles of the past.

The micro- politics of teaching continues to be largely a matter of who gets to teach the courses they want to teach. Good quality of teaching requires attention to the choices in the lives of stu- dents, not only in academic specialization but choices about with whom they will have coffee and to what values they will commit their careers. In this paper, we support multiple evaluative efforts. We urge some but only a small amount of attention to traits and styles of instructors.

We only slightly notice student outcomes. What we emphasize is instructor duty McConney et al. We call for personal judgment of the evaluator and urge that the instructor be viewed as a member of a teaching community. Finally, partly as a political view, we oppose using personnel evaluation to standardize sukstoji teaching. Destytojq darbas yra sude- tinga veikla politineje aplinkoje, bet daugelyje vertinimo procedGrq neatsizvelgiama j tai, kad destytojo atsako- mybe jvairiapuse ir priklauso nuo situacijos specifisku- mo.

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Galbut taip bus visada; zinoma, kad technologiniq sprendimq kaina yra bauginanti, taciau destymo jvertini- mas gali buti atliekamas geriau. Destymo jvertinimas neatskiriama visos institucijos veiklos jvertinimo dalis.

Platus ir efektyvus destymo jver- tinimas reikalauja kritisko tyrimo, kur butq atsizvelgiama j institucijos tikslus, studentq auditorijq, administracines veiklos organizavimq, studijq turinj ir studentq pasieki- mus bei studijq programq poveikj valstybei ir visuomenei Shulman ; Cave ir kt.

Destymq tinkamai jver- tinsime tik visq siu politiniq veiksniu kontekste, o jei siq veiksniq netirsime, aukstlji jvertinimas bus aukatoji ir daznai nepagrjstas.

Kaip ir destymas, jvertinimas matematikaa informacija pagristq sprendimq priemimo procesas. Kaip teigiama Personalo jvertinimo standarteturi buti pasitelkiamos jvai- rios informacijos rinkimo procedures, stebejimas ir situ- acijq jvertinimas.

Studijq dalyko jvertinimui gali buti tai- komi kiekybiniai bei naturalistiniai tyrimq metodai. Siame straipsnyje aptarsime daugialypio jvertinimo pastangas. Nedaug demesio bus skirta destytojo savy- bems ir destymo stiliams, nors tai labai svarbu. Dar maziau demesio kreipsime j studentq rezultatus. Akcen- tuosime tik destytojo pareigas McConney ir kt. Reikalausime asmeninio jvertintojo nuovokumo ir jtikine- sime, kad destytojas turi buti laikomas akademines bend- ruomenes nariu.

Pabaigoje savo esminq pozicijq is da- lies supriesinsime su standartizuotu destymo jvertinimo taikymu aukstojoje mokykloje. Ir tarn turi pakankamq pagrindq. Nepaisant to, ar jvertini- mas pagrjstas ar ne, zmones gali buti jskaudinti. Jis tikriausiai la- biau deres prie aukstojo mokslo institucijos tikslu ir struk- turos Meyer, Scott ir Deal,ir netgi deres prie jq gana netobulai.

Ypac uzmaskuotai jvertinimas kartais panaudojamas priekabiavimo ar cenzuros tikslais. Tai, kq destytojas turi pasakyti, turetq buti jvertinta, bet jver- tinimu pagrjstas veiksmas neturetu pazeisti akademines laisves. Sj da- lyko jrodyti – svarbi administracijos pareiga. The current state-of-the-art of formal evaluation of col- lege teaching in perhaps all countries is poor; it is simp- listic and inconsequential. Faculty work is a complex enterprise in a political milieu but most assessment pro- cedures are insensitive to its broad responsibility and situationality.

Perhaps it will always be so; certainly the price of technological solution is daunting; but the evaluation of teaching can be done better. The evaluation of teaching is an inseparable part of the evaluation of the institution.

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A broad and effec- tive evaluation of teaching requires critical study of ins- titutional goals, classroom environments, administra- tive organization and operations, curricular content, student achievement, and of the impact of programs on state and society Shulman, ; Cave etal. Teaching can be judged properly only in the context of these political factors — and if no effort is made to study them, the evaluation of teaching will be incomplete and often invalid. Like teaching, evaluation is a process of judgment based on information.

As described in The Personnel Evaluation Standards 1various kinds of informa- tion gathering procedures, observers, and situations should be used. Together, quantitative and naturalistic research methods can help discipline the appraisal. What we emphasize is instructor du- ty McConney et al. We call for personal judg- ment of the evaluator and urge that the instructor be viewed as a member of a teaching community. Whether the evaluation is valid or invalid, they may get hurt. The evaluation will probably be less sensitive to their aims and talents than anyone would like.

It will be more attuned to campus institutional aims and structures Meyer, Scott and Deal,and even to those quite imperfectly. More insidiously, evaluation sometimes is used to harass or censor.

What a teacher has to say should not go unevaluated but action based on evaluation should not violate academic freedom. The burden of demonstration rests with administrators. It should be a stern obligation. Realiame pasaulyje jvertinimo metu matemaika informa- cija toliau apdorojama, sis procesas yra ir politinis, ir ana- litinis.

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Geri duomenys retai kadatiesiogiai issprendziaeg- matmeatika problemas, is tiesq jie tik daznai paskatina politines manipuliacijas Fetterman ir Pitman, Kol nera patyrimo ir palankiq politiniu salygLj, jvertinimu pa- grjstq informacijqdestymui pagerinti turetume naudoti at- sargiai.

Tai nereiskia, kad destymas neturi buti jvertintas. Jis privalo buti jvertintas, tad sis procesas vyks.

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Taciau turetume ismokti tai daryti geriau. Kiekvieno aukstosios mokyklos destytojo kvalifikaci- ja ir pareigu atlikimas jvertinami siekiant maziausiai ketu- riq tikslu: Siq keturiq tikslq siekimo procesas vyksta vienu me- tu, taciau vienas kitam ir kliudo. Duomenys siekiant vie- no tikslo gali buti netinkamai panaudoti aukstoui tikslu, pvz. Norint pasiekti, kad jvertinimas butq gera- noriskas, tikslai, kontekstas, budai ir pasekmes turi buti suvokiami kaip sisteminga visuma.

Lee Cronbach ir Goldine Gleser isskyre dvi sq- vokas: Jei jvertiname jau dirbantj akademinio personalo narj, tikedamiesi, kad po jvertinimo jis mateematika toliau liks akademines bendruomenes nariu, tokj jvertinimo vadiname paskyrimu arba atitikimu uzimamoms pareigoms. Sio jvertinimo tikslas yra geriau suvokti destytojo gabumus irtrukumus. Kreipdami demesj j abu aspektus, siekiame pakoreguoti destymo, pagerin- ti darbo salygas bei uztikrinti geresnj darbo atlikimo- Tai dazniausiai smulkus, nors kartais gali pasitaikyti ir rim- tesniu korekcijq.

Toliau musq straipsnyje bus analizuoja- mas atitikimo pareigoms, o ne atrankos jvertinimas. Vieno akademinio personalo nario formalus ar ne- formalus lyginimas su kitais yra trumparegiskas poziu- ris.

Destoma tarn tikroje specifineje aplinkoje. Kiekvie- no vertinimo standartai turi remtis specifine situacija, dabartinemis ir busimomis didaktinemis bei politine- further evaluation of teaching might improve some things. In the real world, what is done with evaluation infor- mation gathered is as much a political as analytic pro- cess. Good data seldom lead directly to problem-solv- ing, in fact they often lead to political manipulation Matematima terman and Pitman, Until we have the know-how and political facility for improving teaching based on evaluative information, we should proceed cautiously.

This is not to say the teaching should not be evaluated. It will be evaluated. It must be evaluated. But we should get better at doing it. Doing it should be based on the realities of the department and campus community, not only on ideologies of teaching and customs of the dis- ciplines. For instructor evaluation, for the appraisal of qualifi- cation and performance of the individual college teacher, we speak of at least four aims: Data for one aim may inappropriately be used for another aim; e.

The purposes, the contexts, the techniques, and the conse- quences need to be seen as a matematiak whole if the evalu- ation is to be matemqtika. If we are evaluating someone already a faculty member with expectation of remaining so, we may call it placement. From that evaluation we hope to get a better idea of ta- lents and shortcomings. Noting both, we consider ad- justing the teaching situation to improve working condi- tions and performance — usually a minor adjustment, but sometimes much more.

In placement evaluation, we con- centrate on the anticipated responsibility of instruction and the work context. For selection, that is, selecting one of many candi- dates for a long-term position, immediate circumstances are not so important. In most of the following, our dis- cussion will be on placement rather than selection.